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Computers and Technology

A Synopsis of Machine Learning’s History

Machine learning (ML) is a critical technique for achieving the goal of exploiting artificial intelligence technologies. Machine learning is frequently refer to as AI due to its learning and decision-making capabilities, while it is actually a subset of AI. Until the late 1970s, it was an integral aspect of the evolution of artificial intelligence. Then it diverged to evolve independently. Machine learning has developed into a critical response tool for cloud computing and eCommerce, and is being apply to a wide variety of cutting-edge technologies. (data science course Malaysia)

For many firms today, machine learning is a crucial component of modern business and research. It assists computer systems in gradually increasing their performance through the application of algorithms and neural network models. Machine learning algorithms generate a mathematical model from sample data – commonly referred to as “training data” – in order to make judgments without being explicitly programmed to do so.

The Machine Learning, data science course malaysia

Machine learning is base in part on a model of the interplay of brain cells. Donald Hebb developed the paradigm in 1949 in a book titled The Organization of Behavior (PDF). Hebb’s theories on neuron stimulation and communication between neurons are present in this book.

“When one cell supports another in firing frequently, the first cell’s axon generates synaptic knobs (or enlarges them if they already exist) in contact with the soma of the second cell,” Hebb stated. By applying Hebb’s notions to artificial neural networks and artificial neurons, his model can be state as a method for modifying the interactions between artificial neurons (also called nodes) and the changes to individual neurons. When two neurons/nodes are trigger simultaneously, the relationship between them strengthens; when they are activate separately, the relationship weakens. These interactions are denote by the term “weight,” and nodes/neurons that tend to be both positive and negative are define as having strong positive weights. Nodes with opposite weights create strong negative weights (e.g. 1=1, -1x-1=1, -11=-1).

The Checkers Game as a Machine-Learning Exercise
In the 1950s, IBM’s Arthur Samuel created a computer software for playing checkers. Due to the program’s limited accessible computer memory, Samuel launched what is known as alpha-beta pruning. His design includes a scoring function based on the board’s piece locations. The scoring function aimed to quantify each team’s odds of victory. The programme determines its next step by the use of a minimax strategy, which evolved into the minimax algorithm.

Samuel also created a number of strategies that enable his programme to improve over time. In what Samuel referred to as rote learning, his software recorded/remembered all positions it had previously encountered and combined them with the reward function’s values. In 1952, Arthur Samuel coined the term “machine learning.”


In 1957, Frank Rosenblatt built the perceptron by combining Donald Hebb’s idea of brain cell interaction with Arthur Samuel’s machine learning studies at the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory. Initially, the perceptron was intended to be a machine, not a programme. The software, which was originally developed for the IBM 704, was put in a custom-built image recognition machine dubbed the Mark 1 perceptron. This enabled the software and algorithms to be transfer to and used by other machines.

The Mark I perceptron, dubbed the first effective neuro-computer, encountered some issues with broken expectations. Although the perceptron appeared promising, it was unable to distinguish a wide variety of visual patterns (such as faces), frustrating researchers and putting an end to neural network development. It would be several years before investors and financing organisations’ frustrations subsided. The field of neural network/machine learning research struggled until the 1990s, when it saw a renaissance.

The Algorithm of the Nearest Neighbor

The nearest neighbour method was invent in 1967, laying the groundwork for basic pattern recognition. This technique was use to map routes and was one of the first algorithms use to solve the problem of determining the most efficient path for travelling salespeople. By using it, a salesman inputs a desired city and instructs the programme to continually visit neighbouring cities until all have been visit. Marcello Pelillo is credit with coining the term “nearest neighbour rule.”

The Next Step Is Provide by Multilayers

The discovery and application of multilayers in the 1960s paved the way for new directions in neural network research. It was determined that giving and employing two or more layers in a perceptron provided much more processing power than a single-layer perceptron. After the perceptron introduced the concept of “layers” in networks, several variants of neural networks were develop, and the variety of neural networks continues to grow. Multiple layers enabled the development of feedforward neural networks and backpropagation.

Backpropagation, invented in the 1970s, enables a network to adapt to new situations by adjusting its hidden layers of neurons/nodes. It refers to “backward propagation of mistakes,” in which an error is process at the output and then propagated backward through the network’s layers for the goal of learning. Deep neural networks are now train using backpropagation.

An artificial neural network (ANN) contains hidden layers that enable it to perform more complex tasks than perceptrons could. ANNs are a critical component of machine learning. Neural networks have input and output layers and, in most cases, a hidden layer (or layers) that transforms input into data that the output layer may use. The hidden layers are ideal for detecting patterns that are too complicate for a human programmer to discover, which means that a human would be unable of identifying the pattern and then teaching the device to recognise it.

Source: data science course malaysia , data science in malaysia

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